Hot working is a metalworking technique that uses high temperatures to shape or form metal. It is performed above the metal’s recrystallization temperature, which is the temperature at which new grains are formed in the crystal structure.
During hot working, the metal becomes more ductile and more easily shaped due to the increased temperature. This allows for various forming techniques such as forging, rolling, extrusion, and drawing to be performed. Hot working is commonly used for materials like steel, aluminum, copper, and alloys.
The benefits of hot working include:
1. Increased ductility: The higher temperature reduces the strength and hardness of the metal, making it easier to deform without cracking or fracturing.
2. Improved formability: Hot working allows for complex shapes and intricate details to be formed as the metal becomes more malleable.
3. Grain refinement: The high temperature during hot working promotes the formation of refined and equiaxed grains, improving mechanical and material properties.
4. Reduced work hardening: Hot working helps minimize the work hardening effect during cold working, resulting in improved material properties and reduced spring back.
Hot working processes are typically carried out using specialized equipment such as furnaces, presses, or rolling mills. It is commonly used in automotive, aerospace, construction, and manufacturing industries, where precise shaping and forming of metals are required.