Sand Casting

Custom Sand Casting Services

Our sand casting services offer a versatile, cost-effective solution for producing complex metal components with intricate shapes and details. Our team can assist with pattern and sand casting mold design, considering the component’s complexity, material properties, and manufacturing requirements. We create molds using a combination of traditional molding techniques and modern technology, ensuring accurate and precise molds that can accommodate complex geometries and details.
We offer finishing services such as grinding, polishing, and heat treatment to achieve the required surface finish and properties. We also conduct thorough inspections to ensure the quality and integrity of the castings.

  • Various customization options
  • Choose appropriate material
  • Quality control
Sand Casting - https://jiahuicustom.com/

What’s Sand Casting Process?

Sand casting is the manufacturing process that involves creating metal parts by introducing molten metal into a mold made of sand. It is a time-honored technique used for centuries due to its ability to make complex geometries and intricate details.

The sand casting process typically begins with creating a custom pattern, which is used to create the mold made of sand. The sand is packed around the design to capture its shape and details. Once the mold is ready, molten metal pours into the mold, filling the cavities and taking the shape of the pattern. As the metal cools, it solidifies, forming the desired part.

Sand casting offers flexibility in materials, as it can be used with various ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including aluminum, brass, bronze, and iron. It is commonly used for multiple applications, from small prototypes to large-scale production, in automotive, aerospace, construction, and more industries.

Our Qualification for Sand Casting Service

With years of experience in sand casting, our team of skilled craftsmen has honed their expertise in creating high-quality metal components. JIAHUI has successfully completed numerous sand casting projects for diverse industries, from small-scale prototypes to large-scale production runs. Our team is well-versed in manufacturing sand casting parts, from creating custom patterns to packing sand molds, pouring molten metal, and post-casting processes. We have the technical knowledge and expertise to handle various sand casting materials, part sizes, and complexities, ensuring accurate and precise results.

Quality is at the vanguard of everything we do. We stick to stringent quality control measures throughout the sand casting process to ensure that every part meets or exceeds industry standards. Our team is dedicated to delivering flawless sand cast components that meet your specifications and expectations. We provide personalized attention, prompt communication, and professional service throughout the project.

Manufacturing Process

Sand casting is a versatile manufacturing process where a mold made of sand is used to create intricate metal parts. The process involves pouring molten metal into the mold, allowing it to cool and solidify. The mold is removed once the metal has hardened, leaving behind the final cast part. Sand casting is widely used for various applications thanks to its cost-effectiveness and adaptability for simple and complex geometries.

Sand Casting Manufacturing Process - https://jiahuicustom.com/
Material Weight Size Limit Surface Finish Wall Thickness(Min.)
Steel 1kg~400kg 1600mmx1200mmx600mm Ra6.3µm(3.2µm achievable if specified) 8.0mm
Iron 1kg~400kg 1600mmx1200mmx600mm Ra6.3µm(3.2µm achievable if specified) 5.0mm
Aluminum 1kg~120kg 1000mmx1000mmx500mm Ra12.5µm(6.3µm achievable if specified) 3.0mm
Copper 1kg~80kg 500mmx500mmx500mm Ra12.5µm(6.3µm achievable if specified) 3.0mm

Our Sand Casting Production Capabilities

Our sand casting production capabilities showcase precision and versatility. We employ advanced techniques to create intricate sand molds, enabling the production of complex metal parts. Our skilled team oversees the molten metal pouring and cooling process, ensuring precise castings with exceptional detail and reliability.

Materials for Sand Casting Parts

Our sand casting proficiency spans a diverse spectrum of materials, including non-ferrous alloys like aluminum, bronze, and brass and ferrous materials like cast iron and steel. These materials offer excellent castability, ensuring the production of high-quality, intricate parts suitable for various industry applications.

  • Cast Iron
  • Alloy Steel
  • Aluminum
  • Copper

Cast Iron

Cast Iron

Cast iron is a strong yet brittle alloy of iron, carbon, and silicon. It is formed by melting iron and adding carbon to create a high carbon content. Known for its excellent heat retention, durability, and resistance to wear, cast iron is used in cookware, pipes, and engine blocks.

Characteristics

  • High strength and durability
  • Excellent heat retention
  • Good wear resistance
  • Versatile and can be cast into complex shapes
  • Relatively low cost compared to other materials

 

Alloy Steel

Alloy Steel

Alloy steel is a type of steel that incorporates additional elements, such as chromium, nickel, or molybdenum, to enhance its mechanical properties. These alloys impart improved strength, hardness, and resistance to wear, corrosion, and heat, making alloy steel suitable for various applications in industries like automotive, construction, and aerospace.

Characteristics

  • High strength
  • Improved hardness
  • Enhanced corrosion resistance
  • Heat resistance
  • Versatility for various applications

 

Aluminum IngotAluminum

The distinctive characteristics of aluminum make it one of the best materials for sand casting. The major aluminum alloys are A360, A380, A390, A413, ADC12, and ADC1. Among all, the A380 is the most worthwhile aluminum alloy.

Characteristics

  • Excellent corrosion resistance
  • Lightweight
  • High strength and hardness
  • Outstanding thermal conductivity
  • High electrical conductivity
  • Remarkable EMI and RFI shielding properties

CopperCopper

Copper is a reddish-orange metal with a face-centered cubic structure that is highly valued for its aesthetics. It exhibits remarkable properties, yet, it can be alloyed with different elements, such as aluminum, tin, zinc, nickel, etc., to improve its characteristics further. The following are some fundamental properties of copper that make it ideal for producing sand casting parts.

Characteristics

  • Very soft
  • An excellent conductor of heat and electricity
  • Good corrosion resistance
  • High ductility
  • Fine malleability

Surface Treatment For Sand Casting Parts

We provide various surface treatment options for our sand casting parts. These include shot blasting for improved texture, painting, powder coating for corrosion resistance and aesthetics, and precision machining for fine finishing. These treatments ensure that our sand castings meet the industry’s highest quality and performance standards.

Name
Product
Description
Materials
Color
Texture

Bead Blasting

Pump Body_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Bead blasting results in parts with a smooth surface with a matte texture. It is used mainly for visual applications and can be followed by other surface treatments.

Aluminum, Copper, Steel, Iron

Clear

Smooth, Matte finish

Plastic Coating

Plastic Coating_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Plastic coating refers to the process of applying a layer of plastic material onto a substrate surface to enhance its aesthetics, protection, or functionality. The plastic coating can provide a smooth, durable, and protective layer that can resist corrosion, abrasion, impact, and other environmental factors.

Aluminum, Copper, Steel, Iron

Black, Grey, White, Yellow, Red, Blue, Green

Smooth, Matte finish

Powder Coating

Powder Coating_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Unlike conventional liquid paint, which is delivered via an evaporating solvent, powder coating is typically applied electrostatically and then cured under heat or with ultraviolet light.

Aluminum, Copper, Steel, Iron

Black, Grey, White, Yellow, Red, Blue, Green, Gold, Vertical stripe

Smooth, Matte finish

Hot-dip Galvanizing

Hot-dip Galvanizing_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Hot-dip galvanizing is a surface treatment process that involves immersing a metal object into a bath of molten zinc. This forms a protective coating on the surface, providing excellent corrosion resistance and durability.

Copper, Steel, Iron

Clear, White, Black, Grey, Red, Yellow, Blue, Green, Gold, Silver, Bronze

Smooth, Semi-matte, Matte finish.

Polishing

Polishing_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface, either through physical rubbing of the part or by chemical interference. This process produces a surface with significant specular reflection, but it can reduce diffuse reflection in some materials.

Aluminum, Copper, Steel, Iron

Clear

Smooth, Mirror finish

Painting

Painting_Sand Casting Part - https://jiahuicustom.com/

Painting is especially suitable for the surface of the primary material of metal. It will strengthen the material's moistureproof& rust prevention functions and enhance its compression resistance and internal structural stability.

Aluminum, Copper, Steel, Iron

Black, Grey, White, Yellow, Red, Blue, Green, Gold, Silver, Purple

Smooth, Matte finish

Excellent Sand Casting Services

Among many manufacturers, JIAHUI stands as the benchmark for sand casting excellence.

Typical Sand Casting Products

Sand Casting - https://jiahuicustom.com/

FAQs Related To Sand Casting

A: Sand casting can be divided into several types based on the shape of the casting. The commonly recognized types include:

1. Flat Sand Casting: This type of sand casting involves producing flat or plate-like castings. It is typically used for applications where a simple, flat shape is required, such as base plates, covers, or frames.

2. Cope and Drag Sand Casting: Cope and drag sand casting, also known as two-part sand casting, is a method where the mold is split into two halves: the cope (top half) and the drag (bottom half). This casting type allows for more complex shapes and is commonly used for producing symmetrical castings, such as engine blocks or pump housings.

3. Split Pattern Sand Casting: Split pattern sand casting involves using a pattern that can be split into two or more parts. This allows for creating castings with more intricate shapes, including those with internal features or undercuts. Split pattern casting is commonly used for producing complex parts like gearboxes or turbine blades.

4. Core Sand Casting: Core sand casting involves using a sand core to create internal cavities or hollow sections in the casting. A sand core is placed in the mold cavity before the molten metal is poured. This technology produces castings with internal channels or voids, such as engine manifolds or pipes.

5. Shell Molding Sand Casting: Shell molding is a type of sand casting that utilizes a pre-formed mold made from a resin-coated sand mixture. The mold is created by curing the resin-coated sand mixture around a pattern. Shell molding can produce complex shapes with high dimensional accuracy and smooth surface finish.

These are some of the common types of sand casting based on the shape of the casting. The choice of casting method depends on factors such as the part's complexity, desired surface finish, dimensional accuracy requirements, and the material being cast.

A: Sand casting can be divided into several types based on the casting method employed. Some common types of sand casting methods include:

1. Green Sand Casting: Green sand casting is the most widely used and traditional sand casting method. It involves mixing silica sand, clay, water, and additives (such as coal dust or oil) to create a mold. The mold is made by compacting the green sand mixture around a pattern. Green sand casting is versatile and suitable for various casting sizes and shapes.

2. Dry Sand Casting: Dry sand casting, also known as air set or no-bake sand casting, utilizes a chemically bonded sand mixture instead of green sand. The sand is mixed with a resin or other bonding agent, cured, or hardened by a catalyst or heat. Dry sand casting allows for greater dimensional accuracy and smoother surface finishes than green sand casting.

3. Vacuum Sand Casting: Vacuum sand casting is a specialized form of sand casting that utilizes a vacuum to draw the molten metal into the mold cavity. This method helps reduce defects like porosity and improves the quality of the castings. Vacuum sand casting is often used for complex shapes or parts with specific requirements for surface finish and dimensional accuracy.

4. Lost Foam Casting: Lost foam casting, also known as evaporative pattern casting, involves using a foam pattern coated with a refractory material as the mold. The foam pattern is placed in a flask and surrounded by unbonded sand. When molten metal is injected into the mold, the foam model evaporates, leaving a cavity filled with molten metal. Lost foam casting is suitable for producing complex shapes and allows tight dimensional tolerances.


5. Investment Casting: Although not technically a form of sand casting, investment casting is often included in discussions about sand casting methods. Investment casting, or lost wax casting, involves creating a pattern using wax or other materials. A ceramic shell is then applied to the model and heated to remove the wax and harden the shell. Investment casting is renowned for its ability to produce complex and high-quality castings.

These are some of the common types of sand casting methods based on the casting technique employed. Each method has advantages and is suitable for different casting requirements based on factors like shape complexity, dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and cast material.

A: The production requirements for sand casting vary depending on the specific application and desired outcome. However, some common production requirements include:

1. Design and Pattern Making: Sand casting requires a well-designed pattern, which serves as a replica of the desired casting. The pattern is typically made from wood, metal, or plastic and must be carefully crafted to ensure accurate dimensions, appropriate draft angles, and allowance for shrinkage.

2. Mold Preparation: The mold cavity must be prepared before casting. This involves mold creation by packing sand or other mold material around the pattern. The mold must be adequately compacted and vented to allow for the escape of gases during casting.

3. Material Selection: Sand casting can be used with various metals and alloys, including aluminum, iron, steel, brass, and bronze. The material selection depends on factors such as the desired strength, durability, corrosion resistance, and cost.

4. Melting and Pouring: The metal or alloy for the casting is melted in a furnace and brought to the appropriate temperature. It is then poured into the mold cavity, filling it thoroughly and evenly. The pouring process should be carefully controlled to minimize turbulence and avoid defects like cold shuts or porosity.

5. Cooling and Solidification: After pouring, the molten metal in the mold begins to cool and solidify. The cooling rate is crucial to ensure proper grain structure and minimize the formation of defects. Cooling can be accelerated using cooling media or controlled by insulating the mold.

6. Shakeout and Cleaning: Once the casting has solidified and cooled sufficiently, the mold is removed or broken apart to extract the casting. The casting is then cleaned to remove excess sand, scale, and any other contaminants using methods like shot blasting, grinding, or chemical cleaning.

7. Finishing and Machining: Depending on the casting's requirements, additional finishing operations such as trimming, grinding, or machining may be performed to achieve the desired final dimensions, surface finish, and functional characteristics.

8. Inspection and Quality Control: Throughout the production process, inspections are conducted to ensure the casting meets the specified requirements. This may include dimensional measurements, visual inspection, non-destructive testing, and mechanical testing.

These are some of the critical production requirements for sand casting. Each step requires attention to detail and adherence to quality control measures to produce castings to required specifications.

A: Like any manufacturing process, sand casting can encounter various problems that can affect the quality and integrity of the castings. Some common issues in sand casting include:

1. Porosity: Porosity refers to the presence of small voids or air pockets in the casting. It can occur because of various factors, such as improper venting, inadequate mold compaction, or gas entrapment during pouring. Porosity can weaken the casting and make it prone to leakage or failure under pressure.

2. Shrinkage: Shrinkage is the size reduction that occurs as the molten metal cools and solidifies. If the casting doesn't have sufficient feeding or riser systems to compensate for shrinkage, it can result in shrinkage defects like shrinkage cavities or porosity. Proper riser design and the use of feeding aids can help minimize shrinkage-related issues.

3. Mold Shift or Misalignment: Mold shift or misalignment can occur if the mold halves or core components are not correctly aligned during mold assembly. This can lead to dimensional inaccuracies, mismatched surfaces, or even incomplete castings.

4. Mold Erosion or Washout: In some cases, the molten metal can erode or wash away the sand mold or core material, leading to defects like metal penetration or rough surfaces. This can happen due to excessive turbulence during pouring, improper mold material selection, or inadequate mold coatings.

5. Hot Tears or Cracks: Hot tears or cracks can occur in the casting due to internal stresses caused by uneven cooling or solidification. These defects can weaken the casting and reduce its structural integrity.

6. Parting Line and Flash Issues: Parting line mismatch or excessive flashing can occur if the mold halves do not fit properly or the mold material is not sufficiently compacted. This can result in excess material at the parting line or flash, requiring additional finishing or machining operations.

7. Inclusions or Contaminants: Inclusions or contaminants such as sand, slag, or oxides can get trapped in the casting during the pouring process. These foreign materials can affect the casting's mechanical properties, surface finish, or overall quality.

8. Warpage or Distortion: Warpage or distortion can occur in the casting due to uneven cooling or internal stresses. This can result in dimensional deviations or misalignment with mating parts.

These are some of the common problems that can arise in sand casting. Proper process control, design considerations, and quality control measures can help minimize these issues and ensure high-quality castings.

A: There are several molding methods used in sand casting to create sand molds. The choice of molding method depends on factors such as the complexity of the part, production volume, desired surface finish, and the type of casting equipment available. Some common molding methods used in sand casting include:

1. Green Sand Molding: Green sand molding is the most widely used and traditional molding method in sand casting. It involves mixing high-quality silica sand with a binder, typically clay, water, and additives, to create a moldable sand mixture. The green sand is packed around a pattern to form the mold cavity. Green sand molds are typically reusable and cost-effective.

2. Dry Sand Molding: Dry sand molding is similar to green sand molding, except that dry sand is used instead of moist sand. The dry sand is mixed with a binder, such as organic or inorganic binders, to create a moldable sand mixture. Dry sand molds offer better dimensional accuracy and surface finish compared to green sand molds but are less flexible and require greater compaction.

3. Air Set Molding: Air set molding, also known as no-bake molding or chemically bonded sand molding, uses a mixture of sand and a resin binder. The sand mixture is packed around the pattern and then cured or hardened using a catalyst or curing agent. Air set molds offer good dimensional accuracy, high strength, and excellent surface finish. They are used for complex and more extensive castings.

4. Shell Molding: Shell molding is a precision molding method suitable for producing high-quality castings with fine details and smooth surfaces. It involves coating preheated sand with a thermosetting resin, typically phenolic resin, to create a shell-like mold. The shell mold halves are assembled around the pattern, and the resin is cured. Shell molds offer excellent dimensional accuracy, good surface finish, and high production rates.

5. Vacuum Molding: Vacuum molding is a variation of green sand molding that utilizes a vacuum to assist in filling the sand mold. Place the model and sand box in the vacuum chamber and apply a vacuum to expel the air from the sand mold. Vacuum helps achieve better mold density and reduces defects such as air voids.

6. Lost Foam Casting: Lost foam casting, also known as evaporative pattern casting, uses a foam pattern that is coated with a refractory material. The coated foam pattern is then embedded in sand and surrounded by a flask. When molten metal is injected into the mold, the foam pattern evaporates, leaving a cavity filled with molten metal. Lost foam casting allows complex shapes to be achieved without removing the pattern.

A: The raw materials used to create sand molds in sand casting can vary depending on the molding method and the specific requirements of the casting project. However, the most common raw materials used in sand mold production include:

1. Sand: High-quality silica sand is the primary raw material for sand casting. It provides the bulk of the mold material and imparts properties like good refractoriness, permeability, and thermal stability. The sand should have a high silica (SiO2) content and low impurities like clay, silt, or organic matter.

2. Binder: Binders are used to hold the sand grains together and provide strength and coherence to the mold. The choice of binder depends on the molding method and the desired properties of the mold. Common binders used in sand casting include clay, such as bentonite or kaolin, and organic binders like resins. Or inorganic binders like sodium silicate.

3. Water is added to the sand and binder mixture to activate the binder and facilitate mold compaction. It helps in achieving the desired mold strength and workability.

4. Additives: Various additives may be used in sand mold production to enhance certain properties or address specific requirements. Examples of additives include coal dust or wood flour to improve mold permeability, graphite to reduce metal-to-sand adhesion, or refractory materials to enhance mold resistance to high temperatures.

5. Coatings: Mold coatings are sometimes applied to the sand mold surface to improve the casting surface finish and reduce defects like metal penetration or veining. Coatings can be made from materials such as zircon, graphite, or alumina.

It's important to note that the specific composition and ratios of these raw materials can vary based on the particular requirements of the casting process, such as the type of metal being cast, the molding method used, and the desired properties of the final casting. Proper selection and control of raw materials are crucial for achieving high-quality molds and castings in sand casting.

A: A good molding sand should possess certain properties to ensure successful and efficient sand casting. These properties include:

1. Refractoriness: The molding sand should have a high refractoriness to withstand the high temperatures of molten metal without significantly deforming or breaking down. This property prevents the sand from fusing with the metal and allows it to be easily removed from the casting after solidification.

2. Permeability: Permeability refers to the ability of the sand mold to allow gases and steam to escape during molten metal pouring. A good molding sand should have sufficient permeability to prevent the formation of gas defects like porosity or blowholes in the casting.

3. Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness refers to the ability of the sand grains to stick together and maintain the shape of the mold cavity. The molding sand should have proper cohesion to hold its shape during handling, pouring, and solidifying the metal.

4. Compressibility: Compressibility refers to the ability of the sand mold to withstand the pressure applied during mold compaction. The molding sand should have good compressibility to allow for proper packing around the pattern and ensure accurate reproduction of the pattern details.

5. Collapsibility: Collapsibility refers to the ability of the sand mold to collapse or break away from the solidified casting without causing defects or damage. A good molding sand should have adequate collapsibility to facilitate easy shakeout and removal of the casting.

6. Thermal Stability: The molding sand should be stable to resist thermal expansion and contraction during casting. This property ensures dimensional accuracy and minimizes the risk of mold cracking or distortion.

7. Reusability: Reusability is an essential property of molding sand, especially in production settings. The sand should be capable of being reused multiple times without significant degradation in its properties, thereby reducing cost and waste.

8. Flowability: Flowability refers to the ability of the sand mixture to flow and fill the mold cavity appropriately. The molding sand should have good flowability to ensure uniform mold filling and prevent defects like incomplete casting or misruns.

9. Surface Finish: The molding sand should provide a smooth and defect-free surface finish to the casting. It should minimize surface defects like sand inclusions, roughness, or mold marks.

These properties are essential for good molding sand to produce high-quality castings with dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and structural integrity. The specific requirements of these properties may vary depending on the casting process, the type of metal being cast, and the part's complexity.

A: Several types of sand molds are used in sand casting, each catering to specific casting requirements and molding methods. Some common types of sand molds include:

1. Green Sand Mold: Green sand molds are the most widely used and versatile type of sand molds. They are made from a mixture of silica sand, clay, water, and additives. Green sand molds are relatively low-cost, easy to make, and provide good mold strength, permeability, and collapsibility. They are used for various casting applications and can be reused multiple times.

2. Dry Sand Mold: Dry sand molds are made from a mixture of silica sand and a binder that does not require moisture for activation. They are typically made using a mechanical molding process, such as a jolt-squeeze or vacuum molding. Dry sand molds offer better dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and refractoriness compared to green sand molds. However, they are generally more expensive and have lower mold collapsibility.

3. Skin-Dried Molds: Skin-dried molds are a variation of dry sand molds where the mold cavity surface is coated with a refractory material and then dried. This process creates a harder mold surface that can withstand the higher pouring temperatures of certain metals. Skin-dried molds are used for casting alloys that require improved surface finish and reduced metal penetration.

4. Shell Molds: Shell molds are made by coating a preheated pattern with a mixture of sand and resin. The resin-coated sand mixture quickly hardens and forms a shell-like mold. Shell molds provide excellent surface finish, dimensional accuracy, and high strength. They are commonly used for high-precision and high-volume production of small to medium-sized castings.

5. Ceramic Molds: Ceramic molds are made from refractory materials like zircon, alumina, or silica mixed with a binder. They offer excellent dimensional accuracy, high refractoriness, and superior surface finish. Ceramic molds are commonly used for casting complex shapes, intricate details, and high-temperature alloys.

6. Investment Molds: Investment molds, also known as lost wax molds, are made using a wax pattern coated with a refractory material and then melted out to create the mold cavity. Investment molds provide exceptional surface finish, dimensional accuracy, and the ability to cast intricate and delicate parts. They are widely used for jewelry, dental, and aerospace applications.

These are just some of the common types of sand molds used in sand casting. The choice of mold type depends on factors such as the complexity of the casting, the desired surface finish, the type of metal being cast, and the production volume.

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